Notes on the Western U.S. Ingredients Maps

When applying the ingredients-based methodology in the western U.S., there are a few notable differences in the areas with topography. First, an additional forcing mechanism, orographic lifting, must be considered. As a preliminary attempt to provide some guidance in diagnosing this element of the forcing ingredient, forecasted wind barbs are included on the top left panel of the ingredients maps. An assessment of orographic lifting can be based on the magnitude and direction of the wind relative to the orographic features.

Secondly, the 800:850 mb ingredients map may be too near to the surface or underground in certain areas of the west. Therefore, this map should be disregarded in the higher elevation regions. An additional 500:550mb map has been included to provide more information for these regions.

Please note that this expansion of the ingredients to the west is a preliminary experiment only. I am making the maps available for western forecasters to begin to investigate the behavior of the ingredients. Please let me know if you have any suggestions or observations.